EUROPEAN PAPERS ON THE NEW WELFARE

Is the fertility decline a consequence of the growth of the welfare state? Evidence from historical data

Figure 1: Median value of fertility in 11 countries
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Notes: Fertility is here defined as number of births to relative to the number of women at the age of 15-49. Main data source is Mitchell (2003).

Figure 2: Fertility and its determinants from the historical data
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Notes: Numbers are median values of countries for 1860-2000. Note that in the last graph we compare government size with education, on the one hand, and GDP per capita, on the other hand. Definition of fertility is the same as in Figure 1.

Figure 3: Fertility and pension/social expenditure from the MZES data
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